Lauro joined Award Solutions in 2008, bringing over ten years of experience in the wireless telecommunication industry working with mobile cellular, broadband and satellite communications. Has a thorough knowledge and understanding of all standardized radio transmission technologies (i.e.: GSM, GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, HSxPA, HSPA+,IS-95, cdma 1xRTT, 1xEV-DO) and non-standardized technologies (i.e.: Flash OFDM, I-Burst, etc.) as well as and their migration path to 4G and beyond (LTE and WiMAX).
Lauro has co-authored four different telecommunication books, has published 18 international refereed journal papers and over 30 international conference papers, all of them results of research in the wireless telecommunication area. Additionally, has presented over 20 different wireless related courses nationally and internationally to a diverse class of clients. Lauro has a thorough knowledge of mathematical analysis and hands-on experience on wireless and traffic engineering design, including Design, Planning, Performance & Optimization as well as computer simulation of mobile wireless networks. Through research and computer simulation techniques has helped a large base of clients (carriers, vendors, new start up companies) develop optimum technological solutions.
Currently, Lauro is one of the instructors at Award Solutions. His current focus is UMTS, HSPA/HSPA+ and LTE. He is also involved in the development of cutting edge training on optimization courses for LTE operators in the USA.
Lauro holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering (EE) from King's College London, UK (the University of London), a MSc. In EE. and a B.EE from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico, all of them with specialty in telecommunications.
Effect of Closed Loop Power Control on the UL RSSI
The Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) in the uplink is also affected by the parameter settings that govern closed loop power control in LTE. Immediately after the UE completes an RRC connection with the eNodeB, the UE uses closed loop power control on both, the PUCCH and the PUSCH.
In particular, the power that the UE transmits the PUSCH with is given by:
The power control formula for the uplink for the PUSCH in LTE can be broken into five key parts. The first part is the amount of additional power that is needed based on the size of the RB allocation. The higher the number of RBs, the higher the power that is required.
The second part is called P0. It is basically the assumed interference that the UE is expected to overcome. P0 is composed of two subcomponents. The first is called P0_Nominal_PUSCH and it is communicated over SIB2. It is valid for all UEs in the cell. The second component is called P0_UE_PUSCH and it is a UE-specific value. It is optional.
The third part of this equation is the Path Loss (PL) and the impact of the PL or Alpha. PL is just calculated, but the Alpha value communicated to the UE in SIB2. If the Alpha value is set to 1, then all of the PL needs to be taken into account in the power control formula. Some vendors might not allow you to change this value, though (as it is hardcoded).
The fourth part is an MCS-specific component. If the eNB wants the UE to adjust its power based on the MCS that is assigned, it will be taken into account here.
Lastly is the f(i) value, which is simply the closed-loop feedback. This is the additional power the UE will add to the transmission based on specific feedback by the eNB.
Hence, for the PUSCH, two parameters affect the UE transmit power, and therefore, our UL RSSI:
The power control formula for the uplink for the PUCCH in LTE can be broken into four key parts. The first part is called P0. It is basically the assumed interference that the UE is expected to overcome. P0 is composed of two subcomponents. The first is called P0_Nominal_PUCCH and it is communicated over SIB2. It is valid for all UEs in the cell. The second component is called P0_UE_PUSCH and it is a UE-specific value. It is optional. The second part of this equation is the Path Loss (PL) and the impact of the PL or Alpha (the same value used for the PUSCH – See above-). The third part is an MCS-specific component. If the eNB wants the UE to adjust its power based on the MCS that is assigned, it will be taken into account here. Lastly is the f(i) value, which is simply the closed-loop feedback. This is the additional power the UE will add to the transmission based on specific feedback by the eNB. This value is different for each format type of the PUCCH. A different value is given to the UE in SIB2 for formats 1, 1a, 1b, 2, 2a and 2b.
Hence, the parameters that controls the transmit power in the PUCCH are:
The higher the value of PUCCH and the higher the value of PUSCH, the more power the UE will transmit, the better the UL BLER, the higher the throughput and the higher the UL SINR. However, in high capacity cell, this might not be true and the opposite effects might be encountered. Examples of such situations are: Airports, events, convention centers, etc. It is recommended to analyze the UL RSSI in these types of venues during high capacity scenarios and adjust accordingly. Bear in mind that the Alpha value affects both, the PUCCH and the PUSCH.
Should PO_nominal_PUSCH and PO_nominal_PUCCH be the same value and if not then what should be the delta between the two values
Thanks by your very good explanation. I have just a simple doubt. At the begging you mentioned the parameter UL RSSI. I was checking in the document 3GPP 36.214 Rel 8 related to "E-UTRA Physical Layer Measurements" and I could find any parameter with the name UL RSSI, however I found a parameter exactly with the same definition, it is Received Interference Power.
Are they the same parameter with different name ?
Is there any official reference that describe UL RSSI ?
regards and congratulation by your blog posts.